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    1. United States / Croatia double tax treaty – first agreement signed

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      The United States and Croatia signed their first double tax treaty (“treaty”) on 8 December 2022.

      This means that all member states of the European Union (“EU”) now has a tax treaty with the US, as Croatia was the ‘last man standing’ in terms of not having such a treaty.

      So, what does the treaty say?

      The treaty

      DividendsThe treaty reduces withholding taxes (“WHT”) on dividends. The treaty rate is capped at 15%. One exception is where the beneficial owner of the dividend is a company which has held a direct interest of at least 10% of the company paying the dividends for the preceding twelve-month period. Here, the maximum rate under the Treaty is reduced to 5%. In addition, dividends generally paid to certain pension funds qualify for a full exemption from WHT in the source company.
      InterestThe treaty seeks to eliminate WHT on most interest payments. However, WHT is payable and capped at 15% in some circumstances. Those circumstances include: interest arising in Croatia that is determined with reference to receipts, sales, income, profits or other cash flow of the debtor, to any change in the value of any property of the debtor or to any dividend, partnership distribution or similar payment made by the debtor interest arising in the United States that is contingent interest of a type that does not qualify as portfolio interest under the law of the United States.
      RoyaltiesThe treaty limits WHT on royalties to 5%.
      ReservationIn the treaty, the US reserves the right to impose what is known as the “BEAT” tax under US Internal Revenue Code section 59A (“Tax on Base Erosion Payments of Taxpayers with Substantial Gross Receipts”). This applies to relevant profits of a company resident in Croatia and attributable to a US permanent establishment.  
      Limitation on benefits (“LoB”)Those familiar with double tax treaties where one of the contracting parties is the US will be familiar with the LoB article. Broadly, such a clause has applied since the introduction of the 2016 US model tax convention. It is a complex limitation on benefits clause. The result of the LoB in this case means that the application of the treaty is generally limited to “qualified persons” as defined in Article 22 of the Treaty. In general, Article 22(2) requires a resident to be a qualified person at the relevant time that treaty benefits are sought. For the ownership-base erosion test under Article 22(2)(f), the resident must also satisfy the ownership threshold on at least half of the days of any 12-month period that includes the date when the treaty benefit would be accorded. Alternatively, a resident that is not a qualified person under paragraph 2 may still be eligible for treaty benefits for an item of income if it meets one of the other tests under the LOB provision, namely the active trade or business test (ATB test), derivative benefits test or headquarters company test under Articles 22(3), (4) and (5) respectively.  

      Conclusion on United States / Croatia double tax treaty

      The signing of the treaty by the US and Croatia is a welcome development. It will clearly be of great application to businesses and individuals operating across the two jurisdictions.

      The Treaty will enter into force after both contracting parties have approved it in accordance with their internal legislative procedures.

      If you have any queries about the United States / Croatia double tax treaty, or US or Croatia tax matters more generally, then please do not hesitate to get in touch.

      The content of this article is provided for educational and information purposes only. It is not intended, and should not be construed, as tax or legal advice. We recommend you seek formal tax and legal advice before taking, or refraining from, any action based on the contents of this article